Peter II Petrovic Njegos (1813 – 1851) was a poet, bishop and ruler. He layed the foundations of modern Montenegrin state by establishing authorities: Senate, Guardian and Perjanika and introducing tax payments. He united the secular and the religious authorities.
Njegoš was born in the village of Njegusi, near Cetinje. He studied in several Montenegrin monasteries and became the spiritual and secular leader of Montenegro after the death of his Uncle Peter I. After he removed all initial internal opponents to his rule, he concentrated on the unification of the Montenegrin tribes and the establishment of centralized countries. He introduced regular taxes and a number of new laws to replace those of his predecessors introduced much before him. The introduction of taxes turned out to be very unpopular among the Montenegrin tribes, and for this reason several rebellions broke out during his reign. Njegos’s rule is also marked by a constant political and military conflict with the Ottoman Empire and his attempts to expand the territory of Montenegro with the unconditional recognition of the High Porta. He made an effort to liberate and unify all the Serbs, and was ready to give up its secular powers for unification with Serbia.
Njegos is respected as a poet and philosopher, and is best known for his epic poem „Mountain Wreath“, which is considered a masterpiece of Serbian and South Slavic literature. His other important works are „Microcosm Light „,“ Serbian Mirror „and“ Fake Tzar Scepan Mali „. Njegoš is buried in a small chapel on Lovćen, which was destroyed by Austro-Hungarian soldiers in the First World War. His remains were moved to the Cetinje monastery, and then into the renovated chapel in 1925. The chapel was replaced with the support of the Yugoslav government in 1974 with Mestrovic mausoleum.